PERENCANAAN DAN PERSIAPAN PENELITIAN

Strategi Rancangan Penelitian

Strategi untuk menentukan penelitian yang akan dilakukan tergantung pada tubuna penelitian yang akan dicaprio. Variasi strategi yang dapat dipilih ollen peneliti adalah penelitian yang bersifat Kuantitatif, Kualitatif dan Mix Methode. Peneliti dalam merencanakan penelitiannya telah secara rinci menentukan sifat penelitiannya, karena berdampak pada bentuk pengumpulan data dan analysis datanya. Pada penelitian yang bersifat Kuantitatif peneliti harus membuat desain yang logis dan akurat dalam menentukan teori yang mendasari penelitian serta penentukan variable yang tepat, memilih sampel yang representativ, mengumpulkan data dan melakukan annalists statistik. Sedangkan pada penelitian Kualitatif, peneliti memcoba melibatkan diri sepenuhnya dalam berbagai proses pengumpulan data, mengingat penelitian kualitatif akan menangkap persepsi, dinamika, dan perasaan yang ada dalam kehidupan sosial yang akan akan diteliti. Pada penelitian mix methode, penelite ingin mencampur komponen yang didapat dari penelitian Kuantitatif dan penelitian Kualitatif dalam 1 bangunan peneletian yang komprehensif. Menggabungkan kedua pendekatan tersebut memiliki keuntungan tetapi menambah kompleksitas dan lebih memakan waktu.

Triangulasi

Triangulation is the combination of two or more data sources, investigators, methodologic approaches, theoretical perspectives (Denzin, 1970; Kimchi, Polivka, & Stevenson, 1991), or analytical methods (Kimchi et al., 1991) within the same study. Menuru Denzin, 1970; Patton, 1990), or analytical triangulation (Kimchi et al., 1991 hasil kombinasi data dari Triangulasi, investigasi Triangulasi, metodologi Triangulasi dan tear Triangulasi.

Jadi Triangulasi merupakan suatu  ide dengan melihat dari beberapa sudut pandang, sehingga mendapatkan keakuratan melakukan pengamatan dari berbagai sisi yang berbeda, para peneliti dapat memperoleh gambaran objek dengan benar, seperti gambaran dibawah ini:

screen-shot-2016-12-30-at-7-54-38-pm

 

 

Gambar -1, memberikan fakta Triangulasi dapat melakukan penemuan ( finding)melalui 3 sumber atau dari 3 sisi yang berbeda.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dibawah ini gambaran sederhana, 3 That pendekatan yang digunakan until meyakinkan konsistensi dari evaluasi objek yang akan diteliti.

screen-shot-2016-12-30-at-7-53-43-pm

 

Tahap pertama, yang sang at direkomendasikan adalah melakukan analisa pada Sumber data. Berarti hasil dari data kuallitatif berupa tema dan dari data kuantitatif berupa Grafik, tabel. Sumber data direview

 Second, once the data has been analyzed, key findings can be extracted. Findings need to be grouped and sorted according to the evaluation objectives. This is a tedious, yet necessary process, as the structure of the survey tools may not follow the same structure, or order, as the evaluation objectives, especially for qualitative data.

Finally, when all the key findings have been sorted, the triangulation process can begin. This process should be relatively straight forward if the preparation work has been done properly. Looking across each data source, key findings that are similar can be more easily identified. Key findings can then be grouped into those that are substantiated by other data sources and those that sit on their own. At this point a clear picture of the result should start to emerge. To make the sorting and triangulation process more productive (and fun perhaps) it can be done as a team exercise. More eyes means quicker identification of what belongs where and some level of debate is always healthy.

sumber :Daniel Lindgren is the Founder of Rapid Asia Co., Ltd.,  www.rapid-asia.com

Types of Triangulation,(ThurmondVeronica A.2001)

Data Sources Triangulation, 

Three types of data sources are time, space, and person (Denzin, 1970). Data sources can vary based on the times the data were collected, the place, or setting and from whom the data were obtained (Denzin, 1970; Mitchell, 1986). Because the purpose of longitudinal studies is to identify changes over a time period, such studies are not considered triangulated. Time triangulation indicates collection of data at different times to determine if similar findings occur (Kimchi et al., 1991). Variance in events, situations, times, places, and persons add to the study because of the possibility of revealing atypical data or the potential of identifying similar patterns, thus increasing confidence in the findings (Fielding & Fielding, 1986).

Investigator Triangulation

Investigator triangulation involves using more than one observer, interviewer, coder, or data analyst in the study. Confirmation of data among investigators, without prior discussion or collaboration with one another, lends greater credibility to the observations (Denzin, 1970).

Methodologic Triangulation

Methodologic triangulation has also been called multimethod, mixed-method, or methods triangulation (Barbour, 1998; Greene & Caracelli, 1997; Polit & Hungler, 1995). Methodologic triangulation as addressed in the literature can be somewhat confusing (Goodwin & Goodwin, 1984) because it can refer to either data collection methods or research designs (Lincoln & Guba, 1985)

Theoretical Triangulation

Theoretical triangulation is the use of multiple theories or hypotheses when examining a phenomenon (Denzin, 1970). The intent is to conduct the study with multiple lenses and questions in mind, to lend support to or refute findings. In theoretical triangulation, the perspectives or hypotheses used in the study may be related or have opposing viewpoints, depending on what the researcher hopes to accomplish (Denzin, 1970).

Data-Analysis Triangulation

Data-analysis triangulation is the combination of two or more methods of analyzing data. These techniques can include different families of statistical testing or different statistical techniques to determine similarities or validate data (Kimchi et al., 1991).

Daftar Pustaka

Daniel Lindgren is the Founder of Rapid Asia Co., Ltd., www.rapid-asia.com

Thurmond, Veronica A.2001,  OF NURSING SCHOLARSHIP, 2001; 33:3, 253-258.  SIGMA THETA TAU INTERNATIONAL.

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